Sunday, May 24, 2020

Globalization Operations Management And Globalization

Globalization Globalization refers to the practice of combining the budget of a country with that of the rest of the world. To develop globally, organizations must dramatically transform their management tactics. Because operations management plays a serious part in the general business plan of global organizations, it is vital for operations managers to consider the different trials and tribulations existing in different countries and develop strategies based on those findings. (Glassmeye/McNamee, 2004) Operations Management and Globalization Before one can actually enter into a global market, there are several factors that play into this decision. You need to truly research and investigate all options and consider the consequences of those options before jumping in head first. Market Entry There are several ways in which a company can enter a foreign market. Not all market entry strategies work for all international markets. You need explore the many options for entering into a market before deciding on one or a combination of entry strategies. Direct exporting may be the best applicable strategy in one market however you may need to set up a shared undertaking with another market and in another you may need to certify your business. There are numerous factors that will impact your choice of strategy, including, tariff rates, the level of reworking your desired product, marketing and transportation costs. These factors may increase your costs but it is estimated theShow MoreRelatedThe Influences of Globalization Essay1397 Words   |  6 Pages The influences of globalization can be felt in every city around the world. Technology has enabled individuals as well as organizations the ability to immerse themselves into another culture virtually at the speed of light. Understanding of different societies and cultures has become one of the leading processes of business. Primarily there has been a greater focus on understanding the various cultures because of its ability to affect business on a global scale. Nevertheless, organization suchRead MoreImpact Of Globalization On The Hotel Industry Essay1299 Words   |  6 Pagesthe interference of globalization in the hotel industry, it is inevitable for the hotel companies to meet with different environmental conditions and forced them to study about different management approaches in order to sustain with competing environmental circumstances which would enable them to realize, both negative and positive effects. Since the international trade and business has expanded, there is no doubt that the international linkage is a must. (ZhenJia) Globalization is a procedure thatRead MoreNestle : The Largest Food And Beverage Multi National Corporation1741 Words   |  7 PagesGlobalization is the dominant force by which the world has become interconnected significantly as a result of extremely increased trade and decreased cultural differences. Globalization has made crucial changes in the production and trade of goods and services. The giant companies are now multinational corporations with subsidiaries in many countries. They are no longer national firms with their operations limited to the boundary of just one country. Such companies’ growth and operations are notRead MoreMultinational Corporations, Their Challenges and Successes1550 Words   |  7 Pagesin one nation that that has operations in one or several foreign nations to leverage additional market penetration (Luthans Doh, 2012). By entering into the global market organizations essentially e nter into the threshold of a multinational corporation (MNC). This paper will provide an explanation of globalization, the primary challenges of multinational management, and discuss two separate case studies and their challenges and successes. Increasing globalization Global expansion has developedRead MoreThe Future Of Global Work Essay1457 Words   |  6 Pagesconcept on internationalization or globalization, which has become a definitive characteristic of today’s workforce. The concept of internationalization can be described as a process through which the global presence of a firm increases. In this case, a local company expands its activities to overseas markets and develops new operational units overseas that enhance its ability to generate added value. One of the major characteristic that has characterized globalization is changes in human resourcesRead MoreInternal and External Factors952 Words   |  4 Pagesthat was involved in globalization, innovation and in rapid transformations. Page and Brin did not only find an alternative, but also drove a market with innovation and leadership. In the beginning of 2012 Google inc. reported revenues of $10.58 billion in the fourth quarter of 2011, representing a 25% increase over fourth quarter 2010 revenues of $8.44 billion. (Google investor relations, 2012). Such of success came through a great idea and a successful management. Good management includes attentiveRead MoreEssay on The Globalization of Nestle1612 Words   |  7 Pages Globalization is the dominant force by which the world has become interconnected significantly as a result of extremely increased trade and decreased cultural differences. Globalization has made crucial changes in the production and trade of goods and services. The giant companies are now multinational corporations with subsidiaries in many countries. They are no longer national firms with their operations limited to the boundary of just one country. Such companies’ growth and operations are notRead MoreWal Mart Stores, Inc.1730 Words   |  7 Pages 1. The organization chosen for this study is Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Wal-Mart is an American multinational company that operates a chain of warehouse stores and departmental stores. The organization is headquartered in Arkansas from which operations of 11,000 stores are spread in over 27 countries. Sam Walton formed the company in 1962. The purpose of the company was if they could lower the cost of living for everyone it would give the world the opportunity to have a better life by saving money. Read MoreCross Culture Perspectives: Wal-Mart924 Words   |  4 Pagesthe largest retailer and the largest company in the history of the world due to globalization and this due to the way they conduct business operations. Wal-Mart management has implement ways to overcome the challenges that are presented the ethical and social responsibilities in regards to globalization. This paper will present a breakdown analysis on how Wal-Mart has conquered the challenges of globalization and how they manager to remain the largest profit-making organization both in theRead MoreHow Human Resource Planning Is Different From Manpower Planning? Essay1494 Words   |  6 Pagesplans for employees so as to motivate them. †¢ To do succession planning and make replacement plans. Man Power planning This process involves strategies and practices for effective utilization of workforce in an Organization. In this process the management looks for different ways of staffing workforce in different departments, according to the needs of the organization so as to get the maximum efficiency. Aim of Manpower planning: - To utilize the workforce of an organization efficiently To make

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Mankind When Left to Themselves are Unfit for Their Own Government - George Washington - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 679 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2019/07/08 Category People Essay Level High school Tags: George Washington Essay Did you like this example? When we look at our past, present and possible future, things arent very different. People have changed, ideas have changed and the world around us has gone for a spin but there are some definite factors that have been prevalent through the ages. The downtrodden will always be there and so will the rich and powerful. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Mankind When Left to Themselves are Unfit for Their Own Government George Washington" essay for you Create order The very basis of Bourdieus studies takes root in this very divide. This has played an important role in defining so many norms in our society and has been a key factor in the shaping of the community that we live in now. Taking a look at the matter at hand, the defining of the roles of masculinity and feminism has taken shape through this very concept of the traditions and ideologies being passed down by generations of certain cultures and sectors of society that has led to the sharp barriers we have, preventing us from living in a world of equality. Its indeed true that distinction, as stated by Pierre Bourdieu has been a key factor in this and we shall discuss further on about it and see how and why this has occurred. Culture is a simple yet a completely deep and rooted word that people use lightly without really understanding the crux of the word. When we go down the rabbit hole known as Anthropology, we begin to understand the word by its true meaning. Culture is something that so profoundly affects the thoughts, actions, and feelings of people in that group that anthropologists commonly say that individuals are a product of their culture (Culture, p.15, 3-7). This shows how culture isnt something that one develops for themselves but rather is inculcated into them by their parents and their community members. The working class has always been one for the practical thought process and whatever worked, may it be slightly wrong, was considered to be perfect. One example can be seen in the Jornaleros of Mexico as they can be said to be not passive victims, but also resist, construct, create and dream (Week 1 Presentation.ppt, s.9, 4), who are being oppressed and have been looked over many times. Mov ing onto the topic of the old distinction of a mans work and a womans work being set in various ways. It has been seen earlier, and even today (though not as much) that the roles of men and women have been set for them ever since they have been introduced into the community. The parents teaching a boy to be strong and work while the girl is taught to cook and look after the household. While Generalisations about humans must take the full range of cultural diversity into account (The Study of Humanity, p.9, 3), and yes it is true, but this ideology can be seen spread across most of the countries including America and third world countries too, though the situation is certainly becoming better as awareness is being spread and people are coming out of their social bubbles. But the fact that these norms are being drilled into the brains of many young children is still prevalent, many parts of the society are still forcing their girls to stay at home, preventing them from even getting a proper education. This, as said by Bourdieu is partly due to the working class not having all the resources that the richer classes have and settling with what has always worked for them. This divide was, and always be, the factor that has us humans divided, even after constant tries for unity. Resources are limited and greed, well, doesnt seem to have an end. And with it comes the furt her classifications such as Hegemonic Masculinity. It is a weed so strongly rooted that for us to try and rip it out of the system would require a whole restructure of the functioning society. It would be ignorant to say that today, the situation has improved many folds, but sadly is only restricted to developed countries. It is an evil, something dwelling deep in our history and something that has left a permanent scar.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Questions on Short-Term Finance Free Essays

What can managers do to control the cash cycle? What are the tradeoffs In shortening the cash cycle? Know how to calculate: Elements of the cash cycle and the operating cycle Managing the Working Capital Cycle (Chi. L) For what aspects of working capital does financial management have responsibility? What are the two key areas of working capital policy set by financial management? What are the objectives In setting working capital asset policy? What Is the difference between temporary current assets and permanent current assets? In what ways can working capital assets be balanced? What is spontaneous financing of working capital assets? How is the amount to be used determined? What should be considered in choosing between short-term and permanent financing sources for funding working capital assets? What are the tradeoffs? How can the lifetime of assets be matched to the maturity of funding sources (I. E. We will write a custom essay sample on Questions on Short-Term Finance or any similar topic only for you Order Now , what Is a restrictive working capital financing strategy)? How can working capital assets be financed more flexibly than with a restrictive strategy? How can they be financed more aggressively? Cash Management (Chi. L Chi. 2) What is the focus of short-term financial planning? What are the steps of the short-term financial planning process? How are cash collections forecast? How are cash disbursements forecast? What are the elements of a typical cash budget? Why is short-term debt appropriate for covering short-term cash deficits? What are the typical sources of short-term funds? What Is a line of credit? What are the tradeoffs in cash? What is â€Å"cash†? How are borrowing reserves and marketable securities like cash? What is float? What types of float exist? Why do we care about float? How do we deal with float? What tools can we use to manage float? What is a locker arrangement? How do we compare costs and benefits of a locker? How does using a locker help us to manage risk? Elements of a cash budget Float time, float balances; Costs and benefits of lockers Credit and Inventory Management Managing Accounts Receivable/Setting Credit Policy (Chi. 3) What are the elements of a receivables management program? What are the components of a credit policy? What are the tradeoffs in setting credit policy terms? How does competition affect the optimization of credit policy terms? How can a vendor have a lending cost advantage over other banks and finance companies? Why might a vendor be able to charge a higher price for goods and services by offering reedit? When might a vendor find it necessary to offer credit in order to establish reputation? What are the advantages/disadvantages of open account billing over invoice billing? What factors affect the ideal credit period? What factors determine whether or not credit (early payment) discounts should be offered? What are the five Co’s of credit? What tools are used to monitor receivables? How is the impersonal nature of collection agencies both good and bad? In what forms can credit be offered to customers? How does a firm offering credit to customers finance its own receivables? What is acting of receivables? What are the advantages/disadvantages of factoring? What elements of a credit policy decision can be quantified? How may a change in credit policy affect the costs associated with inventories? How may a change in credit policy affect the costs associated with receivables? In what two ways can projected bad debt losses be affected by a change in credit policy? What are the costs/benefits of offering discounts? Annual percentage costs of credit discounts Costs, benefits, and net benefit of a change in credit policy Break-even probabilities and percentages for a change in credit policy How to cite Questions on Short-Term Finance, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Rationale For Giving Mary Tetanus Booster â€Myassignmentbhelp.Com

Question: What Is The Organism That Causes Tetanus And Why Is It Of Concern In This Situation? Answer: Introducation Clostridium tetani, a bacterium that can contaminate wounds presented to soil or earth is an endospore-framing, bar molded bacterium that can cause lockjaw. For Mary's situation she had got an open injury when working in her garden and this could have presented her injury to the dirt and furthermore to the bacterium C. tetani. Lockjaw is caused because of two poisons discharged by the bacterium, tetanospasmin and tetanolysin, both of which are neurotoxins. There is however the According to the guidelines in the The Australian Immunisation Handbook (Dept. of health, 2017) on administering a tetanus booster, discuss the rationale for giving Mary the tetanus booster The method of reasoning for giving Mary a lockjaw promoter is that she is 50 years old and all Australians over this age are suggested for a lockjaw toxoid supporter, especially on the off chance that they have not gotten one amid the past 10 years. Furthermore, there have been situations where a sponsor has not shielded individuals with minor injuries from getting lockjaw, so a supporter not long after the damage is typically given. Likewise, her presentation to cultivate soil puts Mary at a danger of Clostridium tetani marketing. Physiological basis of the three wound observations For each of the three wound observations indicate, and provide a rationale, as to whether it is a sign or a symptom.The minute the injury takes place, the intense provocative reaction swings without hesitation. The arrival of a few biochemicals at the injury site attempt to achieve homeostasis and control the section of pathogens that could cause a disease. Discuss the physiological basis of the first observation. The edges of the injury are hot to touch and red because of an arrangement of intense incendiary reaction that is activated in case of damage. The chemicals that reason aggravation and are discharged at the damage site are the supplement framework segments, histamines, prostaglandins and a few kinins. The consolidated impact of these mixes and a few cytokinins expands the blood stream to the site so the edges seem, by all accounts, to be red in shading. Nitric oxide assumes a part in vasodilation, so the vessels close to the cut are enlarged for expanded blood stream. The prostaglandins, E1 amd E2 increment the vascular permeablity with the goal that neutrophils can extravasate from the vessels into the encompassing tissue and they likewise unwind the smooth muscles ofthe veins. An expansion in the temperature at the damage site makes the cells metbolize at a speedier rate, so the edges seem, by all accounts, to be hot (Craft, 2015). Discuss the physiological basis of the second observation. The encompassing tissue is swollen on account of the spillage of liquid from the vessels. This prompts the development of exudate. The spaces between tissues are loaded with the protein-rich liquid and this causes swelling of the tissue. It is likewise alluded to as edema. Regularly the swollen tissue is difficult and limits movement in the influenced range, along these lines driving the patient to rest. This enables the procedure of repair to happen quicker (Marieb and Hoehn, 2014). Discuss the physiological basis of the third observation. A purulent and musty release is seen from the injury and by then Mary is likewise febrile. A release of this nature is an unmistakable sign of a disease and that is the reason the human services staff sent an injury swab for culture testing and ID of the pathogen and its anti-infection affectability (Bowler, Duerden, and Armstrong, 2001). Following a contamination, the resistant framework reacts by expanding the volume of exudate and there is an expansion in the swelling and agony. An oral anti-infection can be given to the patient keeping in mind the end goal to treat disease by a pathogen (Craft, 2015). Development and benefits of fever Mary developed fever as an outcome of the provocative reaction to the contamination of her injury. Arrival of exogenous pyrogens as endotoxins discharged by the pathogenic living being can invigorate the arrival of endogenous pyrogens or cytokines, for example, tumor putrefaction factor-, interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and interferons. Prostaglandin E2 and endothelin I alongside corticotrophin-discharging factor are discharged in light of the pyrogens. These follow up on the preoptic region, a locale of the foremost hypothalamus and trigger a febrile reaction. The temperature adjust point is then raised to a more elevated amount than it regularly is. Warmth creation in the body takes after joined by protection of the warmth and the body temperature starts to rise, bringing about fever (Craft, 2015). Discuss two ways in which fever is beneficial. Fever is beneficial in light of the fact that it can stop the increase of the pathogenic microorganisms. Fever exhausts three minerals, copper, iron and zinc that are key for bacterial replication and lessens the rate at which bacterial pathogens economics. Phagocytosis additionally happens at a quicker rate and the disposal of pathogens happens significantly speedier (Marieb and Hoehn, 2014). Possible sources of contamination and modes of transmission Endogenous wellsprings of tainting with Staphylococcus aureus is the skin and the mucosal surfaces. The living being is a commensal and lives on these surfaces without making any damage the human body. Be that as it may, in the internal spans of an injury, the earth is great for it to duplicate and offers more dampness, an ideal temperature and sufficient sustenance. In any case, once it enters the injury, it winds up noticeably pathogenic and defers the tissue repair and causes fever. The Stapylococci can be exchanged to the injury site through the patient's hand that have been sullied because of nasal mucosa or the oropharyngeal mucosa (Lee, 2016). Name one exogenous source of contamination and discuss the mode of transmission from the source to the new host. At the point when exchange of a life form to the patient happens through contact with different surfaces or people, the source is said to be exogenous. An exogenous wellspring of the Staphylococus aureus could be sullying of hands of medicinal services staff. Since S. aureus tainting from soil is very improbable, exogenous contact through hands of individuals around Mary could be a probable source. Sullying through articles that been touched by other individuals is another plausibility. Appropriateness of Augmentin as the antibacterial agent prescribed to Mary Mary's injury swab report affirmed that she experienced a S. aureus disease on the injury. The report additionally expressed that the way of life was delicate to Amoxycillin. However, a few strains of Staphylococcus are known to be impervious to beta lactam anti-toxins and Augmentin is an anti-infection that is viable against anti-microbial safe S Aureus.So it is a proper decision of an anti-microbial to treat her condition (Bullock and Manias, 2017). Staphylococcus aureus is regularly impervious to the anti-microbial Amoxycillin which is a penicillin subordinate. Amoxycillin can hinder bacterial development in light of the fact that the beta lactam ring in its structure represses the arrangement of the peptidoglycan cell divider in microbes. However, the wrong utilization of anti-toxins has prompted the improvement of anti-microbial resistance in microscopic organisms. S. aureus can deliver the catalyst beta lactamase which renders the beta lactam anti-microbials unequipped for blocking cell divider arrangement. Augmentin is a blend of amoxycillin and clavulenic corrosive. Clavulenic corrosive is a beta lactamase inhibitor and in this manner in its essence amoxycillin can keep on inhibitting the augmentation of S. aureus and cure the contamination (Bullock and Manias, 2017). Presentation Referencing in-text and in reference list conforms to APA 6th Ed. referencing style. Critique supported by relevant literature as prescribed. Correct sentence structure, paragraph, grammatical construction, spelling, punctuation and presentation. References Bowler, P. G., Duerden, B. I., Armstrong, D. G. (2001). Wound Microbiology and Associated Approaches to Wound Management . Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 14(2), 244269. https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.14.2.244-269.2001. Bullock, S., Manias, E. (2017). Fundamentals of pharmacology (8th ed.). Frenchs Forest, Australia: Pearson Australia. Craft, J. . (2015). Understanding pathophysiology (2nd Australian and New Zealand ed.). . Chatswood, Australia: Elsevier. Demidova-Rice, T. N., Hamblin, M. R., Herman, I. M. (2012). Acute and Impaired Wound Healing: Pathophysiology and Current Methods for Drug Delivery, Part 1: Normal and Chronic Wounds: business, Causes, and Approaches to Care. Advances in Skin Wound Car. Immunise.health.gov.au. (2017, August 1). /Aus-Imm-Handbook.pdf. Retrieved from https://immunise.health.gov.au: https://immunise.health.gov.au/internet/immunise/publishing.nsf/Content/7B28E87511E08905CA257D4D001DB1F8/$File/Aus-Imm-Handbook.pdf Lee, G. . (2016). Microbiology and infection control for health professionals (6th ed.). . Melbourne, Victoria : Pearson Australia. Marieb, E., Hoehn, K. (2014). Human Anatomy psychology, Global Edition. Pearson Education Limited.

Tuesday, March 31, 2020

General Motors Diversification free essay sample

GM describes their brand politics as having two brands which will drive our global growth. They are Chevrolet, which embodies the qualities of value, reliability, performance and expressive design; and Cadillac, which creates luxury vehicles that are provocative and powerful. At the same time, the Holden, Buick, GMC, Baojun, Opel and Vauxhall brands are being carefully cultivated to satisfy as many customers as possible in select regions. As it emerged from bankruptcy and company reorganization in 2010, GM reorganized the content and structure of its brand portfolio. Some nameplates like Pontiac, Oldsmobile, Saturn, Hummer, and service brands like Goodwrench were discontinued. Others, like SAAB, were sold. Main brands: -Chevrolet -Cadillac -GMC -Buick A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE Today, General Motors is the world’s largest automotive company – with operations in more than 120 countries worldwide. In 2011 we sold 9.0 million vehicles. Our business is diversified across products and geographic markets. We meet the local sales and service needs of our retail and fleet customers with a global network of independent dealers. We will write a custom essay sample on General Motors Diversification or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Of our total 2011 vehicle sales volume, 72.3% was generated outside the U.S., including 43.4% from emerging markets, such as Brazil, Russia, India and China (collectively BRIC), which have recently experienced the industrys highest volume growth. Across the globe, we are the leader in market share and vehicle sales, led by a diverse portfolio of brands sharing core platform efficiencies and connected by GM’s global reach. In North America, GM manufacturers and markets the following brands: Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet and GMC. Outside North America, GM manufactures and markets the following brands: Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Opel and Vauxhall. Presently, we have equity ownership stakes directly or indirectly in entities through various regional subsidiaries, including GM Korea Company (GM Korea), Shanghai  General Motors Co., Ltd. (SGM), SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile Co., Ltd. (SGMW), FAW-GM Light Duty Commercial Vehicle Co., Ltd. (FAW-GM) and SAIC GM Investment Limited (HKJV). These companies design, manufacture and market vehicles under the following brands: Alpheon, Baojun, Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, Daewoo, Jiefang and Wuling. HORIZONTAL BOUNDARIES (DIVERSIFICATION) Technology Linkages A second kind of direct linkage occurs through technology. A company experiences direct technology linkages when it uses the same operations technology to manufacture a variety of products or render a variety of services. For example, General Motors manufactures not only automobiles but also trucks and locomotives. Product Linkages A product linkage occurs as a company extends its product line to new markets. This happens, for example, when the company provides the same products or services to buyers in new geographic locations, as do most franchises and many multinational corporations. Another product linkage occurs when a vertically integrated company experiences excess capacity at different points backward or forward along the product flow chain and can market these products or services externally. For example, General Motors can market its Delco radio products independently of its automobile dealerships. Here vertical integration, whether motivated by reasons of defense or to cut costs and improve efficiency, itself led to product diversification. The electrical power machinery and automotive firms required a much larger variety of supplies and materials than did the manufacturers of metals or food products. As the lack of one part could delay if not actually stop production, these engine making firms felt a pressing need to have an assured source of such materials. Thus General Electric purchased or developed organizations to make fuses, switches, and small electrical units. 71 William C. Durant, the founder of General Motors, anticipating an enormous demand for a moderate-priced car, concentrated his efforts on obtaining  companies manufacturing spark plugs, roller bearings, radiators, electric systems, horns, and other parts and accessories. In neither of these cases did the manufacturing departments expect to take all the output of the parts and accessories farms. Soon both companies by selling such supplies to outsiders had greatly enlarged their product line. Supplements are by no means the same as extensions. When British Aerospace bought Rover, wondrous guff was babbled about the transfer of aerospace technology to car manufacture. If any such transfer took place, it was totally insignificant. Similar false claims were made by General Motors when it diversified into computer services and electronic defence systems by buying, respectively, Electronic Data Services and Hughes Aircraft. Both buys, however, proved to be enormous successes, earning GM large profits both from operations and from the billions eventually made by spinning off the buys. This doesnt disprove the argument against diversification. It proves something else: that GM is very good at this game (much better, in fact, than at making and selling cars). There are businesses which specialise in diversifying, including one Warren Buffetts Berkshire Hathaway which is among the most spectacular investments of all time; $10,000 invested in the shares in 1965 was worth $51 million in 1999. Buffett has bought and kept businesses in furniture retailing, ice cream parlours, shoe manufacture, newspapers, insurance, executive jets, etc., etc. They now generate extraordinary returns on equity from $80 billion of assets, with 47,566 employees. Like GMs board, only more so, Buffett fully understands the principles of astute diversification. First, the buy must sell at or preferably below its intrinsic business value. Second, it must be a business you can understand. Third, it must have excellent returns on capital, terrific past results and predictably good future prospects. Equally important, it must have honest and competent managers who are happy to get on with running the business without interference. Diversifiers may object that such conditions are rarely met. That is all the more reason for diversifying rarely. Buffett waits until something that meets his criteria comes along. Otherwise, he has better uses for his shareholders money. Note that neither he nor GM proceeded by trial and error. They expected, and got, a near 100% record. Note also that GM realised its jackpot, pocketing hard  cash. The apparently unstoppable trend towards mega-mergers and massive acquisitions has been offset somewhat by de-diversifying, as large companies sell their past buys, good or bad. Sometimes the sales have been profitable (like BAes offloading of Rover), sometimes not. They have very seldom been planned, however. Its simply that one strategy (or bunch of boardroom strategists) has been replaced by another, or that disposal is an obvious way of appeasing the investors baying for shareholder value. VERTICAL EXTENSION (INTEGRATION) Why was it profitable for General Motors and Ford to integrate backward into component-parts manufacturing in the past, and why are both companies now trying to buy more of their parts from outside? Back in the 1920s, when Ford and GM originally began to vertically integrate backward, there were two main reasons for doing so. First, the component supply industry was not well developed, so automakers had to manufacture some parts themselves. Second, they wanted to achieve tight coordination between adjacent stages of production to lower their production costs. By the 1980s, however, conditions had changed. A lack of competitive pressures led to internal suppliers becoming inefficient (the bureaucratic costs were high). Also, unionization made in house suppliers’ labor expenses too high. Furthermore, capacity reductions meant that both companies were experiencing excess capacity at in house suppliers. Also, Japanese auto companies had shown that entering into long term contractual relationships with component suppliers was a viable low cost alternative to formal vertical integration.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Free Essays on Louisianas Creoles of Color

"Louisiana's Creoles of Color" In 1970 the state of Louisiana's Bureau of Vital Statistics decided that 1/32 Negro blood was the diving line between white and black (Dominquez, 1986.) They then informed the public that any form of Negro blood was the legal basis for blackness. In addition modern genetic studies show that blacks in the United States average 25 percent white genes and that whites average 5 percent black genes (Woods, 1972.) Consequently, how are we to decipher who constitutes as White American, Black American, and most importantly to this paper, Creole American. The underlying questions of this paper are therefore, "Where do Creole Americans fit into this picture? With whom did Creole Americans identify themselves with?" And finally the purpose of this paper is to educate others about Creoles and their wonderfully rich heritage. From the colonial days of New Orleans to the present time, a unique group of people has contributed to the most diverse state in America. They were the "Gens de Couleur Libres", the Free People of Color. Today, commonly known as "Creoles" or "Creoles of Color", their descendants live in all parts of the country. Some have kept the language and culture bestowed upon them by their ancestors; while some have lost this heritage to a more "American" way of life. The fact is that this country is divided into two separate sectors, white and black, and all other divisions come separate. Just who then were these Creole people that added so very much to Louisiana culture? There were four types of ancestry in New Orleans: Europeans, Indians, Negroes, and half bloods born of French Fathers or European Mothers who were called Creole s (Dominquez, 1986.) Creoles are among a rich cultural heritage of people. But there was little consensus as to what legally constituted as Creole. In State ex. Cousin v. Louisiana State Board of Health, the Louisiana State Court of Appeals was forced to examine the meaning of C... Free Essays on Louisiana's Creoles of Color Free Essays on Louisiana's Creoles of Color "Louisiana's Creoles of Color" In 1970 the state of Louisiana's Bureau of Vital Statistics decided that 1/32 Negro blood was the diving line between white and black (Dominquez, 1986.) They then informed the public that any form of Negro blood was the legal basis for blackness. In addition modern genetic studies show that blacks in the United States average 25 percent white genes and that whites average 5 percent black genes (Woods, 1972.) Consequently, how are we to decipher who constitutes as White American, Black American, and most importantly to this paper, Creole American. The underlying questions of this paper are therefore, "Where do Creole Americans fit into this picture? With whom did Creole Americans identify themselves with?" And finally the purpose of this paper is to educate others about Creoles and their wonderfully rich heritage. From the colonial days of New Orleans to the present time, a unique group of people has contributed to the most diverse state in America. They were the "Gens de Couleur Libres", the Free People of Color. Today, commonly known as "Creoles" or "Creoles of Color", their descendants live in all parts of the country. Some have kept the language and culture bestowed upon them by their ancestors; while some have lost this heritage to a more "American" way of life. The fact is that this country is divided into two separate sectors, white and black, and all other divisions come separate. Just who then were these Creole people that added so very much to Louisiana culture? There were four types of ancestry in New Orleans: Europeans, Indians, Negroes, and half bloods born of French Fathers or European Mothers who were called Creole s (Dominquez, 1986.) Creoles are among a rich cultural heritage of people. But there was little consensus as to what legally constituted as Creole. In State ex. Cousin v. Louisiana State Board of Health, the Louisiana State Court of Appeals was forced to examine the meaning of C...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Inequality and Poverty Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Inequality and Poverty - Essay Example Bishop and Amiel (2007) assert that there is poverty in the majority of the world nations and its people. However, it is not enough to blame people for such predicaments, claiming that they are lazy or made poor decisions which are responsible for their plight. The government has pursued some policies which hamper successful development. Causes of inequality and poverty are in doubt but are more and deeper causes of poverty which are less discussed. Behind the increased interconnectedness which is promised by globalization are practices, policies and global decisions. Such are influenced, formulated, or driven by the powerful and the rich, or rather can be leaders from rich countries and other global actors like institutions, influential people and multinational corporations. However, in the face of such external influences, the government of the poor nations and their people are powerless and as a result, few get wealthy, while the majority struggle with their poor lives. Most of th e people live on just a few dollars a day, and it does not matter if one lives in the wealthiest nations or poorest, one will still notice the high levels of inequality. The poor people have less access to health, education and other basic services that are important in their lives. Problems of disease, malnutrition, and hunger afflict the poor people in the society. Additionally, the poor people are also marginalized from the society and have little representation or voice in political and public debates, which makes it harder for them to escape from poverty. In contrast, the richer you are, the more likely you benefit from political and economic policies. The amount of money the world spends on financial and military bailouts and other areas which benefits the richer is compared to the amount that is spent to address the daily crisis of poverty and other related problems (Jenkins, 2007). The Cutbacks in education, social services and health around the world results for the adjustm ent structural policies by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund as conditions for repayment and loans. To add to this, developing governments are required to open their economies in order to compete with more established and powerful industrialized nations. To attract poor countries and investment, they have entered into a competition to find out who can provide cheaper resources, reduced wages, and attract investment. This has increased inequality and poverty for most people. To add to this, it also forms a backbone of what is we call globalization and as a result, it maintains the unequal historic rules of trade (Bishop & Amiel, 2007). Around the world, in poor or rich nations, poverty has always been present. In all most all nations, the inequality, meaning the gap between the poor and the rich is widening and quite high. The causes are also numerous, including bad government policy, exploitation by businesses and people with influence and power, lack of responsibility or a combination of such factors. Many individuals feel that the high levels of inequality affects the social cohesion, which leads to problems like violence and crime. Bishop and Amiel (2007) assert that inequality is often a measure of poverty that is usually relative. However, absolute poverty is also a matter of concern,